Cataract eye surgery: Cataract is an eye condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy due to clumping of the proteins in the lens. This disease is noticed in individuals who are in their 40s or 50s. But it became more prominent in the late years. The person who gets cataracts cannot do routine activities and has problems with vision. The eye has a lens that focuses images on the light-sensitive retina. As the eye lens becomes cloudy, the passage of light becomes distorted or blocked, causing blurred vision, other visual problems, and even blindness. It takes many years to develop a full-grown cataract. In some children, cataracts can even be caused by how the body processes carbohydrates, amino acids, calcium, and copper. Cataracts cause half of the cases of blindness in the world.
Symptoms of cataract
A cataract generally does not cause any symptoms until it grows so big as to interfere with vision.
Cloudy or blurred vision
Colours appear faded.
Increased sensitivity to light.
What are the different types of cataracts?
Cataracts can be classified by anatomical location in the lens, degree of clouding of the eye lens, or the cause of the cataract. The lens of the human eye is similar in size to that of a candy cane. It has an anterior part and a posterior part. The central part of the lens is called the nucleus, and the outer part is called the lens capsule. Between the inner nucleus and outer capsule is a portion of the lens called the cortex. If the clouding occurs only in the lens cortex, then it is known as a cortical cataract. If the clouding of the lens is adjacent to the capsule, then it is known as a subcapsular cataract. Subcapsular cataract is more common in young people. The cloudier a lens is, the greater its degree of cataract. A cataract can be mild, moderate, or severe. It can be early or advanced. If the lens of the eye becomes opaque, then the cataract becomes mature.
Causes of cataract
As age advances, the lens protein starts to clump together and form a cloud. This is an understanding of the cause of age-related cataract. With time, the cataract becomes more dense and clouds more areas of the lens, making it difficult to see. Blunt or penetrating injuries to the eye result in cataracts either immediately after the injury or some weeks or years later. Exposure to ionising radiation, infrared radiation, or ultraviolet radiation can even cause early cataracts. Diabetes is another cause of cataract development. Inflammatory diseases of the eye like iritis may cause or accelerate the development of cataracts. Genetic illnesses like myotonic dystrophy, galactosemia, Wilson's disease, or Down syndrome can also be the cause of cataracts. Atopic dermatitis, a disease of the skin and mucus membrane, is sometimes associated with the development of cataracts.
Signs of cataracts
As cataracts advance, there is a decrease in clarity of vision, which is not correctable with glasses; there is also a loss of sensitivity that makes colour vision less vivid. Disturbed glare might be noted in the eye where sunlight is scattered by the cataract. In certain types of cataracts, double vision may be seen in one or both of the affected eyes. Some patients require frequent changes in their eyeglasses or contact lenses, as they may find that their near vision is improving as their distant vision declines.
A cataract causes routine discomfort or pain in the affected eye or alters the external appearance of the eye. Family members of people affected by cataracts are not able to see as well as they used to. The eye appears normal to an unstrained observer unless the cataract is mature or white. The pupil of the eye, which is generally black, becomes grey or white.
The physician will see that there is diminished visual acuity in the affected eye. This loss in vision is not corrected by a change in sunglasses. The lens of the eye can be examined by an ophthalmologist, and this change in lens can be seen using a slit lamp, which is an illuminating device used to examine the structure of the front of the eye.
Cataract surgery is the procedure of removing the lens from the eyes and replacing the eye lens with an artificial lens. Cataracts cause the lens to become cloudy, which causes blurred eye vision. Occasionally, cataract surgery does not improve vision if there is eye damage from other conditions like glaucoma or muscular degeneration.
Preparations before eye surgery for cataracts
Before cataract surgery, you may be instructed not to eat or drink anything for 12 hours before the procedure. The doctor may advise you to stop any medications that would increase the risk of bleeding during the procedure.
Though you can go home the same day of surgery, you are advised not to drive, so arrange a ride home.. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotic eyedrops for use one or two days before surgery. The doctor will examine your eye to measure its size and shape using an ultrasound. This will help the doctor determine the right type of lens implant, intraocular lens, or IOL. These lenses improve vision by focusing light on the back of your eye. These IOLs are made of plastic, acrylic, or silicone. These IOLs block ultraviolet light.
The lenses used for replacing cataract lens can be monofocal, bifocal or multifocal.
Astigmatism or toric lenses- These lenses are used to treat patients with astigmatism.
Surgical procedure to treat cataract.
To remove the clouded lens, an ultrasound is used. There is a procedure known as phacoemulsification in which a surgeon makes a small incision in front of the eye and inserts a thin needle-like probe that transmits ultrasound waves to break the cataract into pieces. Once the cataract is removed, the artificial lens is implanted into the lens capsule. Then stitches are used to close the tiny incision in the cornea after the completion of the procedure. After cataract surgery, your vision improves in a few days and becomes healed after the implanted lens adjusts to your eye.
Know The Most Important Types Of Cataract Eye Surgery And The Procedure To Treat It
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